Su última visita fue: Mar Nov 21, 2017 12:18 pm Fecha actual Mar Nov 21, 2017 12:18 pm

Todos los horarios son UTC + 1 hora [ DST ]




 [ 13 mensajes ] 
Autor Mensaje
 Asunto: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Jue Nov 19, 2015 1:22 am 
Desconectado
Más Feliz que una Perdiz
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Mar May 30, 2006 1:18 pm
Mensajes: 68703
Ubicación: Rusia, Venezuela, y a Cuba como al marido de la reina
http://yourstory.com/2014/08/bengal-famine-genocide/

“I hate Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion. The famine was their own fault for breeding like rabbits.”
-Winston Churchill


The British had a ruthless economic agenda when it came to operating in India and that did not include empathy for native citizens. Under the British Raj, India suffered countless famines. But the worst hit was Bengal. The first of these was in 1770, followed by severe ones in 1783, 1866, 1873, 1892, 1897 and lastly 1943-44. Previously, when famines had hit the country, indigenous rulers were quick with useful responses to avert major disasters. After the advent of the British, most of the famines were a consequence of monsoonal delays along with the exploitation of the country’s natural resources by the British for their own financial gain. Yet they did little to acknowledge the havoc these actions wrought. If anything, they were irritated at the inconveniences in taxing the famines brought about.

The first of these famines was in 1770 and was ghastly brutal. The first signs indicating the coming of such a huge famine manifested in 1769 and the famine itself went on till 1773. It killed approximately 10 million people, millions more than the Jews incarcerated during the Second World War. It wiped out one third the population of Bengal. John Fiske, in his book “The Unseen World”, wrote that the famine of 1770 in Bengal was far deadlier than the Black Plague that terrorized Europe in the fourteenth century. Under the Mughal rule, peasants were required to pay a tribute of 10-15 per cent of their cash harvest. This ensured a comfortable treasury for the rulers and a wide net of safety for the peasants in case the weather did not hold for future harvests. In 1765 the Treaty of Allahabad was signed and East India Company took over the task of collecting the tributes from the then Mughal emperor Shah Alam II. Overnight the tributes, the British insisted on calling them tributes and not taxes for reasons of suppressing rebellion, increased to 50 percent. The peasants were not even aware that the money had changed hands. They paid, still believing that it went to the Emperor.

Partial failure of crop was quite a regular occurrence in the Indian peasant’s life. That is why the surplus stock, which remained after paying the tributes, was so important to their livelihood. But with the increased taxation, this surplus deteriorated rapidly. When partial failure of crops came in 1768, this safety net was no longer in place. The rains of 1769 were dismal and herein the first signs of the terrible draught began to appear. The famine occurred mainly in the modern states of West Bengal and Bihar but also hit Orissa, Jharkhand and Bangladesh. Bengal was, of course, the worst hit. Among the worst affected areas were Birbum and Murshidabad in Bengal. Thousands depopulated the area in hopes of finding sustenance elsewhere, only to die of starvation later on. Those who stayed on perished nonetheless. Huge acres of farmland were abandoned. Wilderness started to thrive here, resulting in deep and inhabitable jungle areas. Tirhut, Champaran and Bettiah in Bihar were similarly affected in Bihar.

Prior to this, whenever the possibility of a famine had emerged, the Indian rulers would waive their taxes and see compensatory measures, such as irrigation, instituted to provide as much relief as possible to the stricken farmers. The colonial rulers continued to ignore any warnings that came their way regarding the famine, although starvation had set in from early 1770. Then the deaths started in 1771. That year, the company raised the land tax to 60 per cent in order to recompense themselves for the lost lives of so many peasants. Fewer peasants resulted in less crops that in turn meant less revenue. Hence the ones who did not yet succumb to the famine had to pay double the tax so as to ensure that the British treasury did not suffer any losses during this travesty.

After taking over from the Mughal rulers, the British had issued widespread orders for cash crops to be cultivated. These were intended to be exported. Thus farmers who were used to growing paddy and vegetables were now being forced to cultivate indigo, poppy and other such items that yielded a high market value for them but could be of no relief to a population starved of food. There was no backup of edible crops in case of a famine. The natural causes that had contributed to the draught were commonplace. It was the single minded motive for profit that wrought about the devastating consequences. No relief measure was provided for those affected. Rather, as mentioned above, taxation was increased to make up for any shortfall in revenue. What is more ironic is that the East India Company generated a profited higher in 1771 than they did in 1768.

Although the starved populace of Bengal did not know it yet, this was just the first of the umpteen famines, caused solely by the motive for profit, that was to slash across the country side. Although all these massacres were deadly in their own right, the deadliest one to occur after 1771 was in 1943 when three million people died and others resorted to eating grass and human flesh in order to survive.

Winston Churchill, the hallowed British War prime minister who saved Europe from a monster like Hitler was disturbingly callous about the roaring famine that was swallowing Bengal’s population. He casually diverted the supplies of medical aid and food that was being dispatched to the starving victims to the already well supplied soldiers of Europe. When entreated upon he said, “Famine or no famine, Indians will breed like rabbits.” The Delhi Government sent a telegram painting to him a picture of the horrible devastation and the number of people who had died. His only response was, “Then why hasn’t Gandhi died yet?”


This Independence Day it is worthwhile to remember that the riches of the west were built on the graves of the East. While we honour the brave freedom fighters (as we should), it is victims like these, the ones sacrificed without a moment’s thought, who paid the ultimate price. Shed a tear in their memory and strive to make the most of this hard won independence that we take for granted today. Pledge to stand up those whose voice the world refuses to hear because they are too lowly to matter. To be free is a great privilege. But as a great superhero once said, “With great freedom comes great responsibility.”

_________________
Frígilis despreciaba la opinión de sus paisanos y compadecía su pobreza de espíritu. «La humanidad era mala pero no tenía la culpa ella. El oidium consumía la uva, el pintón dañaba el maíz, las patatas tenían su peste, vacas y cerdos la suya; el vetustense tenía la envidia, su oidium, la ignorancia su pintón, ¿qué culpa tenía él?». Frígilis disculpaba todos los extravíos, perdonaba todos los pecados, huía del contagio y procuraba librar de él a los pocos a quien quería


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Jue Nov 19, 2015 2:55 am 
Desconectado
Der Besserwisser
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Jue Ene 29, 2009 6:34 pm
Mensajes: 11483
Ubicación: China
¡No! ¿En serio? ¿Británicos permitiendo deliberadamente un genocidio en sus posesiones? No puede ser, seguro que el gobernador era alemán o español.

¿Qué será lo siguiente, acusarles de miles de muertes de boers en campos de concentración o de bombardear aldeas kurdas con armas químicas? ¿De vender mantas infectadas de viruela a los indígenas americanos? ¿De genocidiar a los aborígenes australianos? ¿De provocar dos millones de muertos por hambruna en Irlanda con su legislación agrícola?

No no no, ellos son perfectos, maravillosos y demócratas de toda la vida desde el siglo X por lo menos.

[/sarcasmo]

_________________
Sic semper corruptis (in extremis)


Arriba
 Perfil  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Jue Nov 19, 2015 3:00 am 
Desconectado
Con el pesimismo de la razón pero sin el optimismo de la voluntad.
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Vie Abr 03, 2009 1:07 pm
Mensajes: 70690
Ubicación: Laniakea
No, si ahora resultará que en el Reino Unido han gobernado siempre los comunistas.

_________________
"Negar el derecho a la autodeterminación, o a la separación, significa indefectiblemente, en la práctica, apoyar los privilegios de la nación dominante". El derecho de las naciones a la autodeterminación, Lenin (1914).


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Lun Nov 23, 2015 11:57 pm 
Desconectado
Ateo dogmático
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Dom Abr 19, 2009 10:07 pm
Mensajes: 12626
Citar:
Entre 1921 y 1976 se

llevaron a cabo programas de esterilización en Noruega, Suecia y Di

namarca, en cada caso bajo los auspicios o con el conocimiento de los

gobiernos socialdemócratas. Diurante estos años, aproximadamente

000 daneses, 40.000 noruegos y 60.000 suecos (mujeres en el90 por

ciento de los casos) fueron esterilizados con fines ehigiénicos para

mejorar la población-. El alma mater intelectual de estos programas

-el Instituto de Biología Racial de la Universidad de Uppsala, en Sue-

cia-se había fundado en 1921, en pleno auge de esta moda. No se

desmantelaria hasta cincuenta y cinco anos más tarde.

_________________
Metzger escribió:
Solo un apunte: Eso del neo-liberalismo no existe


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Dom Mar 13, 2016 2:00 pm 
Desconectado
Ateo dogmático
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Dom Abr 19, 2009 10:07 pm
Mensajes: 12626
Una ancianita americana (85) que participó en la Revolución Cultural haciendo un AMA. La cosa se lía cuando empiezan a aparecer los descendientes de la víctimas
Citar:
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/4 ... n_who_was/

I was assigned to teach English in a college level institute in Beijing that I was chauffeured to and from while residing in the elegant “Friendship Hotel.” I objected to these special elegant conditions and wanted to be on the same salary and living conditions as my co-teachers. This brought me into participation in writing a “Big Character” poster (dao zi bao) which led to full permission for me to take part both in my institute and among all the foreigners who chose to participate in the Cultural Revolution.
In 1969 the 9th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party called for the correction of several mistakes made during the Cultural Revolution such as ending factionalism, setting up a new constitution for China and keeping criticism of leadership at the highest levels possible including the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. At this point I had put 5 years of hard work into supporting the movement and with these important steps taken chose to return home to the US to support my ailing mother and felt it was important to support and participate in the movement in the US to oppose the war in Viet Nam.

Citar:
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/4 ... as/d0y1nlj

Hey, thank you for doing this AMA.
However, I have some questions for you, I am ethnically Chinese. My paternal grandfather fought and bled in the Chinese revolution for Mao. He was in the Chinese Communist Army and Party from 1940 onwards and fought in some of the bloodiest battles during the wars and rose to the rank equivalent of Colonel. He told me when he was still alive that he had 4 of his friends die in his arms when he fought against the Japanese and the KMT. He had a picture taken with Mao himself which my family still has.
During the cultural revolution he was purged from the People's liberation army for refusing to denounce his superior (the Marshal He Long who was another revolutionary hero who was unjustly accused of being a counter-revolutionary), and tossed into a labor camp. He was subjected to physical and mental torture for years before being released. My grandfather's home was raided by red guards, my grandmother had to flee with my father, uncle and aunt into the countryside to escape further persecution. To this day those memories still pain her.
My maternal grandfather and grandmother were both college professors who were forced into "airplane positions" (http://www.harunyahya.com/image/communi ... k05.16.jpg) for hours. They were publicly humiliated by their students, paraded in dunce caps, subjected to struggle sessions which drove many of their colleagues to suicides, and worried daily that red guards were going to come into their home and steal everything from them.
Both of my parents were sent down youth who were forced into the countryside because Mao decided to toss away the young people who supported him when they outlived their usefulness, even if they did not participate in the cultural revolution at all.
In this context can you answer me the following:
1) Do you consider my grandfather a "revisionist"?
2) Did my intellectual grandparents deserved to be in "struggle sessions"?
3) In the light of the brutality and cruelty the cultural revolution inflicted even on the men who fought to found the People's Republic, how can you consider this to be a positive for China?
4) Do you feel the physical and emotional cost of a generation of youth, often middle and high schoolers, being used as political tools against domestic political opponents was justified?
5) Do you think the Chinese people's collective negative view of the cultural revolution today is correct?
Thank you if you happen to read this.
Edit: I've being getting messages about today's politics so I just want to clarify. My post is meant to raise a matter of Chinese history and my family's connection to it. I know that emotions are running high in the current American electoral cycle but I don't consider my post to be very relevant because the situation in China in 1966 and America in 2016 are simply not comparable.
For those of you interested, I strongly recommend Mao's Last Revolution by Michael Schoenhals and Roderick MacFarquhar for further readings.

_________________
Metzger escribió:
Solo un apunte: Eso del neo-liberalismo no existe


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Dom Mar 13, 2016 8:13 pm 
Desconectado
Ahí, dándolo todo
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Mar Nov 20, 2007 1:39 pm
Mensajes: 47220
Ubicación: Barcelona
Yo diría que el de los indios no es muy olvidado. Ni el grecoarmenio por parte de los otomanos. Ni el exterminio de los bagdadíes por Hulagu, ni el célebre caso de las mantas infectadas con viruela.

_________________
Imagen
Imagen


Arriba
 Perfil  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Lun Mar 14, 2016 6:03 am 
Desconectado
Der Besserwisser
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Jue Ene 29, 2009 6:34 pm
Mensajes: 11483
Ubicación: China
Y no solo invadieron sino que también genocidiaron a gusto. Al cabo de tres semanas de ocupación griega 2/3 de la población turca de Esmirna había sido asesinada.

_________________
Sic semper corruptis (in extremis)


Arriba
 Perfil  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Lun Mar 14, 2016 10:02 am 
Desconectado
Ahí, dándolo todo
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Mar Nov 20, 2007 1:39 pm
Mensajes: 47220
Ubicación: Barcelona
Si nos gusta matar más que a un tonto un lápiz amarillo.

Griego, pues.

_________________
Imagen
Imagen


Arriba
 Perfil  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Dom Mar 27, 2016 2:53 pm 
Desconectado
Perdonar siempre, olvidar jamás.
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Mié Dic 24, 2014 3:41 pm
Mensajes: 11163
Ubicación: Washington D.C.
En 1993 Zepa fue declarada, junto a Gorazde y Srbrenica, zona protegida por la ONU, encargando dicha protección a los cascos azules ucranianos. Estos abandonaron la ciudad a la primera señal de que se acercaban milicias serbias. Son famosas las imágenes que se difundieron en la época de Ratko Mladic negociando la rendición con representantes de la ciudad...y un mediador con uniforme ucraniano-onu.

Zepa se entrega sin lucha y con la promesa de Mladic de respetar a la población local. No la cumplirá, claro, porque si no no estaría escribiendo esto. En los tres días siguiente Zepa, 15.000 habitantes, fue liquidada de la misma manera que Srbrenica. 3.000 hombres de 15 años en adelante desaparecieron y un número aproximadamente igual de mujeres fueron violadas. Sin testigos, porque la ONU se había ido voluntariamente de su zona protegida.

_________________
Editado por la administración por insinuar que existió una cosa llamada eta.

Imagen


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Jue Ago 11, 2016 9:12 pm 
Desconectado
Perdonar siempre, olvidar jamás.
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Mié Dic 24, 2014 3:41 pm
Mensajes: 11163
Ubicación: Washington D.C.
El silencio cómplice es atronador.

_________________
Editado por la administración por insinuar que existió una cosa llamada eta.

Imagen


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Jue Ago 11, 2016 9:21 pm 
Desconectado
Ahí, dándolo todo
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Mar Nov 20, 2007 1:39 pm
Mensajes: 47220
Ubicación: Barcelona
Y acojonante. Seguro que se trataba de una dictadura legítima de esas.

_________________
Imagen
Imagen


Arriba
 Perfil  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Jue Ago 11, 2016 9:45 pm 
Desconectado
Con el pesimismo de la razón pero sin el optimismo de la voluntad.
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Vie Abr 03, 2009 1:07 pm
Mensajes: 70690
Ubicación: Laniakea
Tenéis cientos de hilos en los que recordar el silencio que la mayor parte del foro ha demostrado ante multitud de crímenes HISTÓRICOS. Pero no encontraréis ninguno en el que un solo forero se haya dedicado a criticar a un bando en un conflicto ACTUAL mientras calla cuando el otro bando se dedica a colaborar con yihadistas. Eso sólo lo encontraremos en el hilo de Siria, y sólo vosotros habéis callado cómplicemente.

_________________
"Negar el derecho a la autodeterminación, o a la separación, significa indefectiblemente, en la práctica, apoyar los privilegios de la nación dominante". El derecho de las naciones a la autodeterminación, Lenin (1914).


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
 Asunto: Re: Genocidios Olvidados
NotaPublicado: Jue Ago 11, 2016 9:47 pm 
Desconectado
Perdonar siempre, olvidar jamás.
Avatar de Usuario

Registrado: Mié Dic 24, 2014 3:41 pm
Mensajes: 11163
Ubicación: Washington D.C.
Eres cómplice.

_________________
Editado por la administración por insinuar que existió una cosa llamada eta.

Imagen


Arriba
 Perfil Email  
 
Mostrar mensajes previos:  Ordenar por  
 [ 13 mensajes ] 

Todos los horarios son UTC + 1 hora [ DST ]


¿Quién está conectado?

Usuarios navegando por este Foro: CommonCrawl [Bot] y 1 invitado


No puede abrir nuevos temas en este Foro
No puede responder a temas en este Foro
No puede editar sus mensajes en este Foro
No puede borrar sus mensajes en este Foro
No puede enviar adjuntos en este Foro

Saltar a:  
Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group
Traducción al español por Huan Manwe